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There has been significant interest for designing flight controllers for small-scale unmanned helicopters. Such helicopters preserve all the physical attributes of their full-scale counterparts, being at the same time more agile and dexterous. This book presents a comprehensive and well justified analysis for designing flight controllers for small-scale unmanned helicopters guarantying flight stability and tracking accuracy. The design of the flight controller is a critical and integral part for developing an autonomous helicopter platform. Helicopters are underactuated, highly nonlinear systems with significant dynamic coupling that needs to be considered and accounted for during controller design and implementation. Most reliable mathematical tools for analysis of control systems relate to modern control theory. Modern control techniques are model-based since the controller architecture depends on the dynamic representation of the system to be controlled. Therefore, the flight controller design problem is tightly connected with the helicopter modeling.
This book provides a step-by-step methodology for designing, evaluating and implementing efficient flight controllers for small-scale helicopters. Design issues that are analytically covered include:
. An illustrative presentation of both linear and nonlinear models of ordinary differential equations representing the helicopter dynamics. A detailed presentation of the helicopter equations of motion is given for the derivation of both model types. In addition, an insightful presentation of the main rotor's mechanism, aerodynamics and dynamics is also provided. Both model types are of low complexity, physically meaningful and capable of encapsulating the dynamic behavior of a large class of small-scale helicopters.
. An illustrative and rigorous derivation of mathematical control algorithms based on both the linear and nonlinear representation of the helicopter dynamics. Flight controller designs guarantee that the tracking objectives of the helicopter's inertial position (or velocity) and heading are achieved. Each controller is carefully constructed by considering the small-scale helicopter's physical flight capabilities. Concepts of advanced stability analysis are used to improve the efficiency and reduce the complexity of the flight control system. Controller designs are derived in both continuous time and discrete time covering discretization issues, which emerge from the implementation of the control algorithm using microprocessors.
. Presentation of the most powerful, practical and efficient methods for extracting the helicopter model parameters based on input/output responses, collected by the measurement instruments. This topic is of particular importance for real-life implementation of the control algorithms.
This book is suitable for students and researches interested in the development and the mathematical derivation of flight controllers for small-scale helicopters. Background knowledge in modern control is required.
Practical Head and Neck Cytopathology provides an engaging and holistic approach to the cytologic diagnosis of head and neck masses, covering both the technique of needle aspiration and its microscopic interpretation. A suitable sample is critical for arriving at the diagnosis and this book provides organ-specific tips on the FNA technique. Presence of different organs and structures in the head and neck region, as well as morphologic overlap amongst disparate entities, adds to the complexity of cytologic diagnosis. This book presents an easy-to-follow, stepwise approach to diagnosis, using concise bulleted text to highlight key features. Common and infrequently encountered mimics are included and interpretative challenges are discussed, facilitating a robust diagnosis. Numerous high-quality photomicrographs aid recognition of both common and rare features. A valuable resource for trainee and practising pathologists alike, this book is based on universally-used techniques and routinely prepared material, which are relevant to cytopathologists across the globe.
This book (with free Online Edition) is full of clear revision notes and diagrams for Higher Level OCR 21st Century GCSE Additional Science. It includes a section on 'Ideas About Science', loads of exam advice and revision summary questions. Everything's explained in straightforward language, with a touch of humour to keep things interesting. What's more, a free Online Edition of the whole book is included - perfect for revising on a PC, Mac or tablet device.
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